International and Interregional Ties", "Protocol on Cooperation between the City of Bangkok (the Kingdom of Thailand) and the City of St. Petersburg (the Russian Federation)", "Sister City Agreement between the Seoul Metropolitan Government, Republic of Korea and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, the Kingdom of Thailand", "Memorandum of understanding between People's Government of Shandong Province People's Republic of China and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Kingdom of Thailand", "Memorandum on Friendly Cooperation and Exchange between Foreign Affairs Office, Shanghai Municipal People's Government People's Republic of China and International Affairs Division, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Kingdom of Thailand", "Memorandum of understanding on The Establishment of Sister-City Relations between The City of Shenzhen of The People's Republic of China and The City of Bangkok of The Kingdom of Thailand", "Memorandum of understanding between Tehran Municipality Islamic Republic of Iran and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Kingdom of Thailand", "Memorandum of understanding between The People's Committee of Hue City The Socialist Republic of Vietnam and The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration The Kingdom of Thailand", "Agreement between Tianjin Municipal Government of the People's Republic of China and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration of the Kingdom of Thailand on the establishment of friendship exchanges and cooperative relationship", "Agreement on the Establishment of Sister City Relations Between The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, The Kingdom of Thailand and The City of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia", "บันทึกว่าด้วยความร่วมมือ ระหว่างนครหลวงเวียงจันทน์และกรุงเทพมหานคร", "Resolution: Sister City Affiliation of Washington, D.C. and Bangkok, Thailand", "Reaffirmation agreement between Washington, D.C. and Bangkok, Thailand", "Memorandum of understanding between People's Government of Wuhan Municipal People's Republic of China and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Kingdom of Thailand", Bangkok Metropolitan Administration official website, bangkoktourist.com – Official travel guide by the BMA Culture, Sports and Tourism Department, Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins, Chaloem La 56 Bridge (Elephant's Heads Bridge), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bangkok&oldid=993757664, Populated places established in the 18th century, Populated places on the Chao Phraya River, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with failed verification from April 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2020, Articles with dead external links from March 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Bangkok is the location of Hua Lamphong Railway Station, the main terminus of the national rail network operated by the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). Although Bangkok's sex tourism scene is well known to foreigners, it is usually not openly acknowledged by locals or the government. [10] Most prominent were the Chinese, who played major roles in the city's trade and became the majority of Bangkok's population—estimates include up to three-fourths in 1828 and almost half in the 1950s. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as firmly establishing it as a sex tourism destination. [66] More recent numbers claim that there is 3.3 m2 of green space per person,[67] compared to an average of 39 m2 in other cities across Asia. email. The city, incorporated as a special administrative area under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in 1972, grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, economy, education, media and modern society. The tree symbol of Bangkok is Ficus benjamina. [96], Bangkok is one of the world's top tourist destinations. The Bangkok Mass Transit Authority (BMTA) operates a monopoly on bus services, with substantial concessions granted to private operators. The king's birthday is also marked by the Royal Guards' parade. [98][99] Euromonitor International ranked Bangkok fourth in its Top City Destinations Ranking for 2016. Bangkok is faced with multiple problems—including congestion (see (§ Transport below), and especially subsidence and flooding (see § Geography)—which have raised the issue of moving the nation's capital elsewhere. engulfed the once independent Thonburi. As the main gateway through which visitors arrive in Thailand, Bangkok is visited by the majority of international tourists to the country. Motorcycle taxis operate from regulated ranks, with either fixed or negotiable fares, and are usually employed for relatively short journeys. Of 162 cities worldwide, MasterCard ranked Bangkok as the top destination city by international visitor arrivals in its Global Destination Cities Index 2018, ahead of London, with just over 20 million overnight visitors in 2017. Bangkok has made sister city and/or friendship agreements with twenty-eight other cities in nineteen countries, as of 2019[update]. [101] These include the mass-oriented Thai Rath, Khao Sod and Daily News, the first of which currently prints a million copies per day,[115] as well as the less sensational Matichon and Krungthep Thurakij. In addition to rapid transit and heavy rail lines, there have been proposals for several monorail systems. colorful buildings, It's remarkably sophisticated and Only in the 1990s have Bangkok's population growth rates decreased, following the national rate. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Stock Exchange of Thailand 2012, pp. Built in 1999, the huge gate is actually called the King’s Birthday Celebration Arch, signifying the loyalty of the Chinese community to King Bhumibol of Thailand. The river meanders through the city in a southerly direction, emptying into the Gulf of Thailand approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of city centre. This feature has contributed to the effects of subsidence caused by extensive ground water pumping. 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